Need more information about some keywords? Have a look at this glossary!


Software that is intended to damage, disable, or steal information from computers and computer systems or to make them do something bad.


A type of malware that is downloaded by the victim who has been misled about its true intent. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek story of the wooden horse used to help Greek troops invade the city of Troy by stealth.


A type of malware that is capable of copying itself and typically has a detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.


A type of malware that spreads through your computer by creating duplicates of itself on other drives, systems and networks.


A type of malware designed to block access to a computer system or files inside it until a sum of money is paid.


A set of software tools that enable an unauthorized user to gain control of a computer system without being detected.


Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of recipients.


Software that enables a user to obtain information about another's computer activities by transmitting data secretly from their hard drive.


Software that automatically displays or downloads advertising material (often unwanted) when a user is online.

Virtual Machine

A software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and applications. The virtual machine is comprised of a set of specification and configuration files and is backed by the physical resources of a host.

Volatile Data

Data stored within volatile memory (like RAM) that can be lost completely when a computer or mobile device loses its power source or is turned off.

Non-volatile Data

Data stored within non-volatile memory or storage (like Hard Drive) that will be retain by a computer or mobile device even if there is a break in the power supply.

Hash Codes

Numeric values of a fixed length that uniquely identifies data. They represent large amounts of data as much smaller numeric values, so they are used with digital signatures.


A dynamic link library (DLL) is a collection of small programs, any of which can be called when needed by a larger program that is running in the computer.


Obtained, done by, or involving deception, especially criminal deception or unjustifiably claiming or being credited with particular accomplishments or qualities.

Social Engineering

Using deception to get individuals to share confidential or personal information that may be used for fraudulent purposes.


The practice of spying or of using spies, typically by governments to obtain political and military information.


Scientific tests or techniques used in connection with the detection of crime.


Convert (information or data) into a cipher or code, especially to prevent unauthorized access.


Make (a coded or unclear message or a cipher) readable.


Causing disruption or annoyance through being unwelcome or uninvited.


Not intrusive or disruptive


A part of a computer system or network that is designed to control access by blocking any unauthorized ones and allowing only the authorized ones.


A content management system (CMS) is a software application or set of related programs that are used to create and manage digital content. CMSes are typically used for enterprise content management (ECM) and web content management (WCM).


Employing or involving a module or modules as the basis of design or construction.